Definition

Abbreviated as [ATR], this feature is used to distinguish between sounds that are articulated with the tongue root pulled forward in the mouth, also referred to as [+tense] in some languages. When articulating vowels that are [+ATR] or [+tense], the articulation of such vowels can be accompanied by a feeling that the mouth is tenser, or more constricted, during articulation than [-ATR] vowels (Zsiga, 2013, p. 268).

[+ATR] vowels include [i, e, u, o] and [-ATR] vowels are [ɪ, ʊ, ɛ, ɔ].

Examples

• Hul’q’umi’num’
• The following phonemes enclosed in blue are described as being [+ATR] or [+tense].
• Skwxwú7mesh
• The following phonemes enclosed in blue are described as being [+ATR] or [+tense].
• Secwepemctsín
• The following phonemes enclosed in blue are described as being [+ATR] or [+tense].