Phrases expanding notions inherent in the predicate are considered to be complements. (Gibson, 1973, p. 66) Phrases which are expansions of the inflectional person categories of the predicate are also complements. In Secwepmctsín, phrases and clauses which complete predicative notions occur as complements introduced by ‘ʔes’. (Gibson, 1973, p. 74)

Complements can be differentiated according to the following properties:

→ A subjective complement immediately precedes or follows the predicate. (Gibson, 1973, p. 75)

→ An objective complement follows the predicate, and occurs after the subject if it also follows the predicate. (Gibson, 1973, p. 75)


Example in Skwxwu7mesh of a Nominalized Clause Functioning as a Complement Clause (Jacobs, 2011, p. 47)
Example in Secwepmctsín of Complements (Gibson,1973, p. 74)


Gibson, J. A. (1973). Shuswap grammatical structure. [Doctoral dissertation, The University of Hawaii].

Jacobs, P. W. (2011). Control in Skwxwu7mesh. [Doctoral dissertation, The University of British Columbia].