Deixis encodes ‘new ideas’ such as visibility, or position in regard to the speaker in the six principal directions and modes, which may include many ideas that we express by means of adverbs, or they may be absent. (Matthewson, 2017, p. 142) The term can be used to refer to many different notions, including personal deixis, space deixis, time deixis, and social deixis. The common feature in all of these is the notion of distance, anchored to the speech actors, or utterance. (Gillon, 2009, p. 7)

Deixis is often assumed to apply only to demonstratives rather than determiners, in the nominal domain. However, in Skwxwú7mesh, deixis is a feature of both the demonstratives and determiners. (Gillon, 2009, p. 7)


Example in the Skwxwu7mesh Context of Deixis (Deictic or Nondeictic Features) in the Determiner System (Gillon, 2009, p. 8)


Gillon, C. (2009). Deictic features: Evidence from Skwxwú7mesh. IJAL, 75(1), 1-27.

Matthewson, L. (2017). Semantics in Indigenous American languages: 1917-2017 and beyond. IJAL, 83(1), 141-172.