Demonstratives express the same categories of gender and proximity in addition to definiteness. Demonstratives have plural forms and diminutives. All demonstratives can stand alone as adjuncts with the functions of demonstrative pronouns, third-person pronouns, and locatives. (Suttles, 2003, p. 467) The Skwxwu7mesh demonstratives mark case (direct vs. oblique), gender (feminine vs. gender-neutral), number (singular, number-neutral vs. plural) and deixis (neutral, proximal, medial vs. distal). (Jacobs, 2011, p. 89)


Non-Feminine (M)Feminine (F)Plural (Pl)
present and visible (p)tθéʔ
‘that, he, him, it, there’
‘that, she, her’
yəθéʔ, yəθéləy̓
‘those, they, them’
nearby and invisible (n)kʷθéʔ
‘that, he, him, it, there’
‘that, she, her’
‘those, they, them’
remote or hypothetical (r)k̓ʷí

‘that, there’
Examples of Demonstratives in the Halkomelem Context (Suttles, 2003, p. 468)
Examples of Demonstratives in the Skwxwu7mesh Context (Jacobs, 2011, p. 90 [adapted from Gillon, 2009])