Dorsal sounds are made primarily with the tongue body as the active articulator, and can be specified further as follows (Zsiga, 2013):

  • Velar: velar sounds are those made with the tongue body moving farther back and high in the mouth, making a constriction against the velum.

Hul’q’umi’num’: the following sounds enclosed in red are produced with a velar place of articulation. This includes labial velar sounds, which are velars produced with lip rounding simultaneously. Rounded consonants are indicated by the w superscript.

Suttles (2004)

Skwxwú7mesh: the phonemes in red are all articulated at the velum, including labial velars as indicated by the w superscript.

Dyck (2004)

Secwepemctsin: the sounds enclosed in red are velar phonemes, including those with a w superscript, indicating a labiovelar articulation.

Gibson (1973)