Fortition is the occurrence of weak, open sounds becoming stronger (as a result of more constriction in the vocal tract) (Zsiga, 2013, p. 240).


Hul’q’umi’num’: In the progressive and resultative paradigms, verbs that are /c/ or /x/ word-initially in the environment of #_a are reduplicated as /kw/ or /xw/ respectively. This is illustrated in the following example:

  • /cám/ ‘go/come inland‘ becomes /cákwəm/ in the progressive form ‘be going/coming inland‘ (Suttles, 2003, p. 19).