The basic negative word [in Halkomelem] is ʔə́wə and can be interpreted as ‘not’ when used as the most common negator of a predicate, ‘no’ when used in an interjection or answer context and ‘refuse’. In addition, two other negative words are also used to negate predicates: xʷəw̓é ‘not yet’ and ʔə́wəteʔ ‘none, absent’. An affirmative predicate is most commonly negated by embedding it in a matrix clause where the head is ʔə́wə. (Suttles, 2003, pp. 151-152)

In Squamish, the principal means of negation involves an irrealis complementizer introducing a clause inflected for a conjunctive subject. (Davis, 2005, p. 7) Another negation pattern in Squamish is monoclausal. The negative element appears as a pre-predicative particle, sometimes followed by an additional irrealis particle. There is no determiner/complementizer introducing the negated predicate. (Davis, 2005, p. 7)


ʔə́wə čxʷ   ném̓-əxʷnot           you               go-you
‘You do/will not go.’
Example of Negation without an Auxiliary in Halkomelem Context (Suttles, 2003, p. 152)
Example of Negation in the Squamish Context (Davis, 2005, p. 7)
Example of Monoclausal Negation in the Squamish Context (Davis, 2005, p. 9)