Also known as theme, this role describes the entity that undergoes action, or alternatively is moved, experienced, or perceived. (Carnie, 2006, p. 231)

All Sḵwx̱wú7mesh roots are inherently intransitive and consequently may only co-occur with one argument, which is realized as the subject. Thematically, this argument may be either an agent or a patient. (Jacobs, 2011, p. 48)

In Halkomelem, many roots such as k̓ʷáqʷ—‘get hit’ and kʷə́n—‘get taken’ are non-active or patient-oriented. (Suttles, 2004, p. 54)


Example in the Skwxwu7mesh Context of an Argument with a Patient Role tsexw-∅ (Jacobs, 2011, p. 47)


Carnie, A. (2006). Syntax: A generative introduction. John Wiley & Sons.

Jacobs, P. W. (2011). Control in Skwxwu7mesh. [Doctoral dissertation, The University of British Columbia].

Suttles, W. (2004). Musqueum reference grammar. UBC Press. SFU Student Access.