Truth Value


Statements are the only utterances that have truth values. Each statement may refer to one of two possible truth values i.e., it is either true or it is false. However, this can only be determined relative to a specific context as certain statements may be true in certain situations and false in others. (Kroeger, 2019)


All of the below examples are statements, whose truth conditions depend on the specific context in which they occur. For instance, na ímesh kwa John may either be true or false depending on if John is actually walking. If John is walking, the statement is true. However, if John is not walking, then the statement is false. The other statements follow similar in how their truth value is dependent on the context of the utterance.

Example in the Skwxwu7mesh Context of a Statement (Jacobs, 2011, p. 39)
Example in the Halkomelem Context of a Statement (Suttles, 2004, p. 128)
Example in the Secwepemctsín Context of a Statement (Lai, 1998, p. 8)


Jacobs, P. W. (2011). Control in Skwxwu7mesh. [Doctoral dissertation, The University of British Columbia].

Kroeger, P. R. (2019). Analyzing meaning: An introduction to semantics and pragmatics. Language Science Press.

Lai, I. S. (1998). The grammar and acquisition of Secwepemctsín independent pronouns. [Master’s thesis, The University of British Columbia].

Suttles, W. (2004). Musqueum reference grammar. UBC Press. SFU Student Access.