An anaphor is a noun phrase (NP) that obligatory gets its meaning from another NP in a given sentence. (Carnie, 2006, p. 145) Additionally, an anaphor must agree in gender, and often number, with its necessary antecedent.

Anaphors may also be susceptible to binding conditions and have restrictions on where they can appear in a sentence.

In English, words like myself, himself, herself, themselves, ourselves, etc., are typically described as anaphors while languages such as Halkomelem do not have these independent reflexive or reciprocal pronouns. (Gerdts & Hukari, 2000, p. 10)


Example in the Secwepemctsín Context where neqwestsú.ts.t-ken is Used to Signify ‘myself’ (Lai, 1998, p. 72)


Carnie, A. (2006). Syntax: A generative introduction. John Wiley & Sons.

Gerdts, D. B., & Hukari, T. E. (2000). A-subjects and control in Halkomelem. Proceedings of the 7th International HPSG Conference, 1-24.

Lai, I. S. (1998). The grammar and acquisition of Secwepemctsín independent pronouns. [Master’s thesis, The University of British Columbia].