Referring Expression


Referring expressions, R-expression for short, generally refer to an NP that gets its meaning by referring to an entity in the world. (Carnie, 2006, p. 147)

In Halq’eméylem, independent pronouns are R-expressions and these expressions are subject to Condition C effects when in argument positions. (Lai, 1998, p. 36)

In Secwepmctsín, independent pronouns attached to a lexical determiner phrase (DP) are R-expressions and are subject to Condition C effects. (Lai, 1998, p. 30)


Example in the Secwepmctsín Context where the Determiner Phrase John cannot be Bound as it is an R-Expression (Lai, 1998, p. 31)


Carnie, A. (2006). Syntax: A generative introduction. John Wiley & Sons.

Lai, I. S. (1998). The grammar and acquisition of Secwepemctsín independent pronouns. [Master’s thesis, The University of British Columbia].